About us

CLIMATIC HEALTH RESORT VELI LOŠINJ

The beginnings of the Veli Lošinj Health Resort can be traced back almost 130 years, when in the summer of 1885, on his cruise across the Adriatic Sea, Archduke Charles Stephen of Habsburg, the commander of the Austro-Hungarian navy, chose Veli Lošinj as the most suitable place for his vacation, due to the beauty of its scenery, vegetation and exceptionally favourable climate. He bought a piece of land and built his residential summer/winter house, villa “Wartsee” there, also planting a vast public garden that was finished in 1890. In 1886, he commenced with works in Rovenska harbour, when the Austrian Archduke Maximillian of Habsburg, the younger brother of Emperor Francis Joseph I, admiral of the Austrian navy and later an Emperor of Mexico, laid the foundation stone for the construction of the breakwater.  A costal road about 3 km long was constructed from Rovenska to Uvala Kriška.

 

Villa “Wartsee” was turned into a public climatic health resort in 1889, i.e. into a Hospital for Children’s Diseases (for children with scrofula and weak children…).
Three years later, in September 1892, at the proposal of dr. Conrad Clar, a pioneer of health tourism in Lošinj and assistant professor of balneology in Graz and dr. Leopold Schrötter, a professor at the Vienna Medical Faculty and specialist for lung and throat diseases, the Austro-Hungarian Ministry of Health officially declared Veli Lošinj to be “Climatic Health Resort”. Lovran was given the same title in 1898, Opatija in 1899 and Crikvenica in 1906.

 

Since 1893, the healthcare commission of the Austro-Hungarian Ministry of Health published data on the total number of guests in Lošinj, according to which 1.566 guests stayed there in 1899, 8.427 in 1913, and 5.816 in 1914.

 

Since then, the Health Resort has changed the owner and the intended purpose on several occasions. It has continuously operated as a medical institution, children’s hospital and then health resort, since 1957, during which time it has acquired domestic and international reputation of a health resort specialized for treatment of respiratory system diseases, asthma, allergies and psoriasis, as well as physical medicine and rehabilitation.

 

According to health resort classification, it is a climatic health resort because its programmes are based of advantages offered by natural environment on the location; mild Mediterranean climate which is characterised by a large number of hours of sun per year, exceptionally clean sea and air and large pine forests and Mediterranean undergrowth complexes at the very location of the Health Resort and in the surroundings.

 

POD JAVORI PARK-FOREST

Pod Javori forest covers the hillsides of Kalvarija, from the existing road and St. John chapel all the way to the road for Veli Lošinj and the Health Resort area.

 

It is protected as a natural heritage, a park-forest, based on the Decision to declare the area “Pod Javori” in Veli Lošinj “a park-forest”, “O.G. of Cres-Lošinj municipality” issue 1/1993.

 

Here, next to his summer residence, is where the Archduke Charles Stephen of Habsburg, planted a public garden of landscape composition, designed by garden experts from Vienna.

 

About 200 species of different pines and exotic plants were planted in the public garden at the time; and walking trails, enclosing wall and irrigation system, ensuring the fast growth of plants, were also constructed. The irrigation system consisted of a water tank situated on the highest point which was supplied by pumps from a well (built in 1763) situated under the park, with an unfailing spring of water at 15m, and a system which used gravity to distribute water to all parts of the garden.

 

The only remnants of the original 19th century park were preserved, witnessing the high aesthetic value of the garden composition; parts of walking trails, enclosing wall and park vegetation, as well as the non-functional water tank.

 

Outside the narrow Health Resort perimeter, the garden is not maintained and the vegetation mostly consists of indigenous plants and Aleppo pine.

 

SPATIAL POSITION

Veli Lošinj Health Resort is situated on the island of Lošinj, in the Veli Lošinj settlement, which numbers about 900 inhabitants and functions as the local developmental centre.  Administratively, it belongs to the town of Mali Lošinj and Primorsko-Goranska County.

 

 The health Resort is situated on the western outskirts of the Veli Lošinj settlement, and is adjacent to Pod Javori park-forest in the southeast. It is directly connected to the state highway, the main cross-island road which leads from ferry docks to Veli Lošinj.

 

The distance of the Health Resort from the town centre is about 450 metres and from the centre of Mali Lošinj about 4.200 meters.

 

TRAFFIC CONNECTIVITY

Veli Lošinj settlement, and hence the Health Resort, is connected:

  • by state highway to ferry docks Porozina and Merag and further through Istria, i.e. the island of Krk with mainland and the County centre, Rijeka, as well as other parts of Croatia,  
  • from Mali Lošinj harbour, by a fast ship line Rijeka – Mali Lošinj and a summer line Pula-Mali Lošinj-Zadar and
  • by air from the international airport Krk which is only 107 km away, and international landing runway Mali Lošinj that can now accommodate for smaller airplanes up to 45 passengers, sports airplanes and which offers the possibility of taxi flights.

 

The existing traffic connectivity will be improved by the upcoming expansion of the Mali Lošinj landing runway, enabling it to accommodate for airplanes with capacity of up to 70 passengers, and in the long term, by the construction of Mrtvaska harbour (alternatively Sv. Martin – Mali Lošinj) for docking of ships on the fast line Rijeka – Dubrovnik, which would also enable the connection with the neighbouring islands of Rab and Pag.

 

SPATIAL SURROUNDINGS

The area of Mali Lošinj as a tourist destination boasts 120 years of development of health tourism.

 

The area is rich in remarkable natural resources, islands and islets of the Lošinj archipelago, agricultural areas, attractive landscapes, mild climate, clean sea and environment, diverse Mediterranean vegetation, park-forests, zoological reserves and nature parks.

 

The area is rich in remarkable natural resources, islands and islets of the Lošinj archipelago, agricultural areas, attractive landscapes, mild climate, clean sea and environment, diverse Mediterranean vegetation, park-forests, zoological reserves and nature parks.

 

The position of the Health Resort in Veli Lošinj settlement, near to the central settlement of Mali Lošinj and within the Lošinj archipelago as a highly sought tourist destination on the “island of vitality” provides many possibilities that are of the utmost importance for the functioning of the health Resort:

  • mild climate with a swimming season at the open sea which lasts from May to October,
  • large areas of pine forests and indigenous vegetation,
  • natural beauties, values and particulars of the Lošinj archipelago, especially those included into 250 km of walking trails and bike routes, contact area of cultural scenery on a slope under the foot of St. John to St. Nicholas,,
  • preserved environment, quality of air and coastal sea above all else,
  • existing official beaches in the immediate vicinity, the distance of the Health Resort from the sea is approximately 850 m to Punta beach and approximately the same distance to Rovenska beach and 1.620 m to Javorna beach,
  • existing tourist accommodation, hospitality, sports and recreational facilities, wellness and swimming facilities, especially those in hotels Punta in Veli Lošinj and in Mali Lošinj in hotels on Čikat and Sunčana Uvala,
  • cultural-historical monuments and cultural events on the islands, 
  • Veli and Mali Lošinj and other historical settlements on the island with their ambient particulars and central contents which include public cultural, religious, hospitality and other contents,
  • agricultural activity which is, in Lošinj archipelago, focused on the production of healthy organic, ecologically grown food which is distributed to hospitality businesses on the island, as well as fishing and shellfish farming, as another source of healthy food.

 

In the Veli Lošinj Health Resort, a number of domestic and foreign gusts combine the pleasantries with the usefulness, and apart from the benefits of the microclimate, the sun and the sea, they also use the services of medical rehabilitation under the supervision of a physical medicine and rehabilitation specialist and specialist of dermatovenerology.

 

Presently, Veli Lošinj Health Resort is a healthcare provider whose founder and owner is the Primorsko-Goranska County. The Health Resort is a legal successor of the Children’s Hospital for Allergies with an Adult Department, which operated until 1994. Since 2005, the Health Resort has had a contract with HZZO for the hospital treatment of children with asthma and adults with psoriatic arthritis. Continual investments are made into the purchase of new medical equipment and the level of accommodation improvements.

 

Below is the overview of natural remedial factors in Veli Lošinj Health Resort, based on scientific studies.

 

CLIMATE

The sea climate is a very important remedial factor. Favourable climatological elements (temperature, air pressure and humidity as well as the wind regime) have a beneficial effect on the human organism. Based on meteorological observations of a standard weather station (climatological) Veli Lošinj (f=44°49’N, l=14°31’E, Hs=50 m) from 1981 to 1991 – an overview entitled Climatic – Bioclimatic overview of the Veli Lošinj Health Resort was compiled.

 

The average annual air temperature is 14.4 °C, during February, the coldest month 6.3 °C and during July, the warmest 24.0 °C.

 

The average annual air pressure is 1009.9 hPa and ranges from 1007.3 hPa in April to 1012.4 hPa in January.

 

The average annual relative humidity is 80%, ranging from 71% u in July to 84% in October and December. There are 78 days with precipitation ³ 1mm annually. Total annual precipitation amounts to 912 mm, with the largest quantities occurring in s October (118 mm) and November (121 mm).

 

The predominant winds are north-northeast (NNE), south (S) and west-southwest (WSW) mistral. Silent times with no wind are predominant during the autumn 40% in the morning and evening hours, 50% in the summer and 35% in the winter. The predominant winds are weak 65-70% (1-3 Beauforts) bora and sirocco, and mistral in the summer afternoons. Moderate winds (4-5 Beauforts) occur in 10% of days during winter and spring. Strong winds (6-7 Beauforts) are most common during winter in 2% of the days. Stormy wind of 8 Beauforts is recorded in wintertime but very rarely.

 

Based on air temperature, wind speed and humidity, a bio-meteorological indicator (THW), important for the subjective human warmth sensation, was drafted. The indicator calculated for 7, 14 and 21 hours, during the entire year in Veli Lošinj (Ivanišević G., Pleško N., 1997) indicated that it is:

 

Cold all day long during the second ten days of February, in the morning and evening in January, February and the first ten days of March and the first and third ten days of December, in the afternoon in the first ten days of April.

 

Fresh all day during the second and third ten days of March, the second ten days of April, in November, the second ten days of December, in the afternoon, in January, November and December, the first and third ten days of February and the first ten days of March, the third ten days of December, in the morning and evening during the first and third ten days of April and the third ten days of October.

 

Comfortable all day long in the first and second ten days of May and October, in the morning and evening during the third ten days of May, the first and second ten days of June, in September and the first and second ten days of October, in the afternoon in the second ten days of May and the third ten days of October.

 

Warm in the afternoon during the third ten days of May and October, first and second ten days of June, in the morning and evening from the third ten days of June to the third ten days of August.

 

Hot are the afternoons from the third ten days of June to the second ten days of September.

 

Very hot during the third ten days of July and the second ten days of August.

 

AIR

The sea air is a very important remedial factor. The level of air purity is a factor that determines the suitability of a location for health tourism. From May 1st, 1986 to April 30th, 1992, levels of SO2, smoke and sedimentary particles were measured in Veli Lošinj, and the data is shown in Table 1.

 

Based on the data from 6 years of air quality examination in Veli Lošinj, the following conclusions can be drawn:

1. The air in Veli Lošinj is not heavily burdened with the examined substances: sulphur-dioxide, smoke and sedimentary particles.

2. Daily monitoring of sulphur-dioxide and smoke concentrations indicate that the air is clean and meets with the criteria for the air quality necessary for recreational, tourist and protected areas.

3. Air excellence is in line with the recommendation of the World health Organisation, and permanent exposure cannot result in adverse effects either on people or the environment.

4. Averages obtained are within the values obtained for rural areas of Europe.

5. Average annual amounts of sedimentary particles are low and below air pollution limiting values.

 

EXCELLENCE OF REMEDIAL FACTORS OF LOŠINJ

Comfortable sea water temperature, water limpidity and lack of harmful substances are a foundation for favourable effects of sea water on the human organism. The sea temperature (Pleško 1997a) and sites for testing the sanitary quality of water are listed in Tables 3 and 4.

 

Strictly controlled exposure to sun rays, infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) rays, has a favourable effect on the growth and development of children, and recovery and recreation of adults. The duration of sunlight was measured in a weather station in Mali Lošinj (Pleško N. 1997a). The data obtained are listed in Table 5.

 

The importance of applying remedial factors of the sea of Veli Lošinj, established form experience, indicates these should be used in Croatian medicine and health tourism.

 

Due to very beneficial effect of Lošinj climate on the respiratory tsystem, a research has been conducted on 1058 patients from the Resort and the data were processed in accordance with the relevant scientific method.

 

Results on treatment success rate, depending on the group, demonstrate a high level of success, ranging from 71,36% to 89,07% and summarizing all the previous analyses and their results, we notice the following:

  • the success of thalassotherapy in children with obstructive bronchopulmonary diseases is at a satisfactory high level
  • there is no significant difference in treatment success between asthma and bronchitis patients, nor between boys and girls
  • the success rate is approximately equal in younger and older children
  • success rates are significantly higher in patients with less serious ailments
  • repeating the treatment can have positive influence on the successful outcome of the treatment

 

 

Table 1Cumulative data for SO2, smoke and sedimentary particles concentrations, measured from May 1st, 1986 to April 30th, 1992.

 

(= number of measurements, = average annual concentration, Cm = maximum 24-hour concentration annually, C95 = concentration which is higher than 95% of measured values; = medium annual amount of sedimentary particles, Xm = maximum monthly amount of total sedimentary particles)

 

CUMULATIVE DATA ON SO2, SMOKE AND SEDIMENTARY PARTICLES CONCENTRATIONS

Year

SO2

(mg/m3)

Smoke

(mg/m3)

Sedimentary particles

(mg/m3 dan)

 

N

C

Cm

C95

N

C

Cm

C95

N

X

Xm

1986/87

361

15

74

42

363

6

39

16

11

182

328

1987/88

350

16

193

52

361

4

31

10

9

102

149

1988/89

331

18

77

42

336

4

20

10

8

104

236

1989/90

362

36

311

100

363

6

28

14

10

107

193

1990/91

363

20

49

36

363

3

21

8

12

146

271

1991/92

360

12

42

26

366

3

22

8

11

140

355

Source: Research 1992.

 

For comparison of the obtained values of air pollution, limiting values were set and listed in Table 2:

a)   Long-term limiting value of air pollution is an indicator of allowed long-term average concentrations of pollution within one-year period, i.e. the measurement of total exposure of receptors.

b)   Short-term limiting value of air pollution is an indicator of allowed high concentrations of pollution which must not be exceeded in the 95% of times during a one-year period, which is the measurement of acute exposure of receptors.

 

Table 2. Limiting values of air pollution of Veli Lošinj Health Resort

LIMITING VALUES OF AIR POLLUTION OF VELI LOŠINJ HEALTH RESORT

SO2 (mg/m3)

Smoke (mg/m3)

Sedimentary particles (mg/m3 dan)

C

Cm

C95

C

Cm

C95

X

Xm

Desirable limiting values of air pollution (for people, 1991.)

 

 

50

125

 

50

125

 

 

 

Desirable limiting values of air pollution (for vegetation, 1991.)

 

 

30

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

Limiting values of air pollution (1991.)

110

 

300

60

 

160

450

800

Strict limiting values of air pollution

60

 

150

40

 

90

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total limiting value of air pollution

 

 

 

 

 

 

350

65

C

Cm

C95

C

Cm

C95

X

Xm

Source: Research 1992.

 

Table 3. Sea temperature (T) (Mali Lošinj 1981-1994)

TEMPERATURE OF THE SEA

Month

T of the sea °C

Month

T of the sea °C

January

12.3

July

23.2

February

11.8

August

23.6

March

12.1

September

21.6

April

14.0

October

19.2

May

16.6

November

16.3

June

20.5

December

13.9

Medium annual temperature of the sea T

17.0

 

Table 4. Examination of sanitary quality of the sea around the island of Lošinj

EXAMINATION OF SANITARY QUALITY OF THE SEA AROUND THE ISLAND OF LOŠINJ

Locations of testing

Number of tests

 

1995.

1996.

1997.

Veli Lošinj – a beach north of Punta hotel

3

6 (5)

5

Beneath the Children’s Hospital

3

6 (5)

5

Source: Research 1995, 1996, 1997.